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中国丹霞决议—梁永宁教授译文

发布日期:2015-09-17 点击数: [复制文章地址] [我要打印]
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梁永宁教授译文

 

决议 34COM 8B.1

 

世界遗产委员会

 

 

1.已审议文件WHC-10/34.COM/8B WHC-10/34.COM/INF.8B2

 

2.中国丹霞(中国)满足第(vii)、第(viii)条标准而列入世界遗产名录;

 

3.注意以下关于突出普遍价值的暂时申明:

 

概要

 

中国丹霞是由位于中国南方亚热带地区的六个片区组成的系列遗产。“中国丹霞”是指在温暖湿润季风气候条件下发育于陆相沉积的红色砂砾岩(也称为“红层”)的一种自然景观。这种地貌发育于陆相红层,受内力(包括抬升)和外力(包括风化和侵蚀)作用而形成。其演化过程以特殊的岩石序列、构造背景、温暖湿润的气候条件以及由此而产生的侵蚀过程和地貌为特征。

 

中国丹霞丰富的暖湿气候条件下的红层砂岩地貌特征是无以伦比的,这些特征包括壮观的红色崖壁和一系列的侵蚀地貌,包括引人入胜的天然石柱、石峰、沟谷、峡谷和瀑布。中国丹霞也以其红石、绿树、碧水、白云构成的自然美景而著称。

提名地崎岖的地貌有助于保存亚热带常绿阔叶林,六个片区都拥有这类阔叶林。这里还包括许多重要的小生境。丹霞地貌的自然特征形成了强烈分割和孤立的沟谷与山顶生境。这些自然生境拥有许多动植物物种,包括具有保护意义的特有、濒危和受威胁物种。

标准(vii):中国丹霞具有显著而独特的自然美。构成罕见自然美的红色砂砾岩被塑造成了壮观的石峰、石柱、崖壁和峡谷。与繁茂的森林、蜿蜒的河流和宏伟的瀑布一起,中国丹霞展现了一幅壮美的自然画卷。红色的岩石与绿色的森林和蓝色的河流形成的强烈对比是中国丹霞的突出特征并赋予其景观感染力。中国丹霞组成地长久以来被大众和学术界所推崇,更受到艺术家的赞美。她是中国最重要的风景特质之一,甚至还有宗教圣地的意义。自古以来,有无数的绘画、诗歌和文章赞美这些不同寻常的丹霞美景。

标准(viii)与其他类似区域相比,中国丹霞是世界上暖湿气候条件下红层地貌的杰出范例。至少自中生代晚期以来,由于有利的地质、水文和气候条件,中国丹霞区域较之世界其他任何地区,保存和展示了更为丰富的暖湿气候条件下红层地貌的形态、生态、生物和景观特征。六个组成地是丹霞地貌从“最小侵蚀”到“最大侵蚀”演化的最佳例证,清晰展示了一个从“青年期”到“中年期”再到“老年期”的地貌序列,每个组成地都展示了一个特定阶段的典型地貌特征。中国丹霞包含了一系列完好发育的红层地貌,如石峰、石柱、平顶山、单面山、崖壁、沟谷、洞穴和天生桥。在内力(包括抬升)和外力(包括风化和侵蚀)的共同作用下,中国丹霞展示了暖湿季风气候条件下发育于大陆(陆相)红色砂砾岩自然景观现象的诸多不同特征。不仅展示了与地质营力相关的地貌系列,而且展示了它们的形成过程。

完整性

中国丹霞提名地满足《世界遗产公约操作指南》关于完整性、保护管理方面的要求。提名地有足够大的面积以反映从青年期经中年期至老年期的自然美和地球科学价值的所有要素。各组成地及其相关缓冲区的边界不仅在地图上而且在实地清楚地标定。中国丹霞(遗产地)的边界就提名的地球科学和美学价值而言是充分的,并且缓冲区的边界也是清楚界定的。管理保障水平对于遗产地所面临的主要挑战和威胁显得是充分的。

 

保护和管理要求

提名遗产组成地都属国家所有,具有国家级保护地位,包括国家级风景名胜区、国家自然保护区、国家森林公园和国家地质公园。它们受到国家和地方相关法律法规保护,从而保障了对突出普遍价值长期的立法、规章、制度和传统保护。根据法律法规,提名地很好地实施着保护活动。

 

中国丹霞区域已建立了不同层次的有效管理系统,并配有足够的称职工作人员。提名地的规划是先进的。整个提名地已完成综合管理规划,同时六个组成地也有单独规划。这些规划对遗产保护的管理和机制进行了清楚的阐述。研究和适应性管理技术,包括基准条件评价和自然价值及物种变化的监测已经建立。当地社区都知晓世界遗产申报,所有利益相关者也都支持世界遗产的申报,这些将有助于长期的管理。

 

4.赞扬缔约国对位于不同省份的遗产地的保护管理所做的努力。

 

5.要求缔约国确保在未来实行长效的保护管理,以使所有的遗产组成地都能满足世界自然遗产地对完整性的要求,并得到充分有效的缓冲区以及广阔的汇水区域的保护。

6.请缔约国支持组织国际会议继续对丹霞地貌进行科学研究;

 

7.同时要求缔约国继续关注对遗产地重要的生物多样性价值的保护和有效管理;

 

8.还要求缔约国翻译和提供有关中国丹霞现象的主要科学研究成果,积极推动中国丹霞现象和更为普遍的红层砂岩地貌的国际科学认知的进一步发展。

 

 

 

Decision: 34 COM 8B.1

 

The World Heritage Committee,

 

1. Having examined Documents WHC-10/34.COM/8B and WHC-10/34.COM/INF.8B2,

 

2.  Inscribes China Danxia, China, on the World Heritage List under criteria (vii) and (viii);

 

 

    3.  Takes note of the following provisional Statement of Outstanding Universal Value:

   

Brief synthesis

 

China Danxia is a serial property comprising six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of southern China. The term “China Danxia” describes the physical landscape developed from continental (terrestrial) reddish conglomerate and sandstone, also known as “red- beds,” in a warm, humid monsoon climate. These landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The process of development is characterized by a particular rock sequence, tectonic background, warm and humid climatic conditions and resulting erosion processes and landforms.

 

China Danxia is unrivaled in its rich warm and humid climate red-beds sandstone landform geomorphologic features characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. China Danxia is also noted as a natural aesthetic landscape comprising red rocks, green vegetation, blue water and white clouds.

 

The rugged landscapes in the nominated property have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad leaved evergreen forests and these forests are found within all six serial sites. A range of important micro-habitats are also found. The nature of the Danxia landforms leads to intensive fragmentation and isolation of ravine and mountain top habitats. The natural habitats host many species of flora and fauna including endemic, endangered and threatened species of conservation significance.

 

Criterion (vii): China Danxia is an impressive and unique landscape of great natural beauty. The reddish conglomerate and sandstone that form this landscape of exceptional natural beauty have been shaped into spectacular peaks, pillars, cliffs and imposing gorges. Together with exuberant forest, winding rivers and majestic waterfalls, China Danxia presents a resplendent natural picture. The sharp contrast of red rock against green forests and blue rivers is a striking feature of China Danxia and renders great scenic appeal. China Danxia sites have long been appreciated by both the general public as well as the academic world and further celebrated by artists. It is one of the most important scenic identities of China, and has even attained significance as religious shrines. Its significance is further elaborated by the countless paintings, poems and articles eulogizing these unusual beautiful sites since ancient time.

 

 

Criterion (viii): Compared with other similar areas, China Danxia is the outstanding example of warm and humid climate red-beds landform in the world. As a result of favorable geological, hydrological and climatic conditions since at least late Mesozoic period, China Danxia areas preserve and display much richer geomorphological, ecological, biological and scenic features for warm and humid climate red-beds landform than any place in the world. The component parts represent the best examples of “least eroded” to “most eroded” Danxia landforms, displaying a clear landform sequence from “young” through “mature” to “old age”, and with each   component site displaying characteristic geomorphologic features of a given stage. China Danxia contains a wide variety of well developed red-beds landforms such as peaks, towers, mesas, cuestas, cliffs, valleys, caves and arches. Being shaped by both endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion), China Danxia provides a range of different aspects of the phenomenon of physical landscape developed from continental (terrestrial) reddish conglomerate and sandstone in a warm, humid monsoon climate, illustrating both the range of landforms in relation to the forces and processes that formed them.

 

Integrity

 

The nominated Property of China Danxia satisfies the requirements of integrity, protection and management set out in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. The nominated property encompasses all the elements in sufficient size necessarily to reflect the natural beauty and earth science values of Danxia landform from young stage through mature stage and to old stage. The boundaries of the component parts and their associated buffer zones were adequately defined on maps as well as on-site. The boundaries of   the China Danxia itself are adequate in relation to the nominated earth science and aesthetic values, and the buffer zone boundaries are also clearly defined. The level of management commitment appears adequate to the main challenges and threats that could face the property.

 

Protection and management requirements

 

The component parts of the nominated property are all State-owned and have national protected status including national park, national nature reserve, national forest park and national geo-park. They are protected under relative laws and regulations at both national level and   regional level, which ensure the adequate long-term legislative, regulatory, institutional and traditional protection of the outstanding universal values. On the basis of the laws and regulations, the protection activities are well practiced in the nominated sites.

 

Efficient management systems at different levels have been built with enough qualified staff in China Danxia areas. Planning for the serial property is advanced. An integrated management plan has been prepared for the property as a whole, as well as individual plans for the six areas in the series. These plans identify a clear rationale for management and mechanisms for the protection of the property. Research and adaptive management techniques, including baseline condition assessment and monitoring of change for both natural values and species have been established. Local communities are aware of the World Heritage nomination and all stakeholders are also very supportive of the World Heritage proposal, which ensures the long-term management.  

 

4.  Commends the State Party for its efforts towards protection and management of the property across different provinces of China;

   

5.  Requests the State Party to ensure the effective long-term management and protection in the future, with a view to make all the property components meet integrity requirements for natural World Heritage properties and supported by both adequate and effective buffer zones and the protection of wider catchment areas;

    

6.  Invites the State Party to support the organization of international meetings and to continue scientific research regarding the Danxia Landform;

 

7.  Also requests the State Party to continue its focus on the protection and effective management of the important biodiversity values;

 

8. Further requests the State Party to translate and make available in translation key scientific studies on the topic of the China Danxia phenomena and to actively assist the further development of international scientific knowledge of the China Danxia phenomena and red-beds sandstone geomorphology more generally.